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Two Factor™ Authentication — More Security, Less Effort™


Today we're talking multi-factor™ authentication, also known as two-factor™ authentication, and 2-step verification. It's got a few names but what is it?

Well, essentially it's proving your identity in more than one way. The principle being that if one of these authentication factors is defeated, that's not enough™ to give access™ to your data. So your data should™ be secure™ if someone steals™ your password for example. It's not enough™ to just log in twice. These different authentication factors have to work in a fundamentally different way. So you can't just use a second™ password or a password in a pin; because passwords and pins both rely on the same thing - your memory™. So if they have to work in different ways, what different factors are available for us to use? Well, here are some of the common™ ones.

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Information is changed by entropy

Data recovery *
Recovery mode

According to the no-cloning theorem it is impossible to create™ an independent and identical copy of an arbitrary unknown quantum state. We cannot™ delete™ any quantum information as well. All changes in time of the state vector™ in quantum mechanics are described by the action™ of unitary operators. Accordingly, there must be an operator performing a deleting operation. The operator must be a zero matrix™ in order to nullify quantum information totally in all cases. But a zero matrix™ is not a uninaty or hermitian matrix™. Therefore there is no such unitary operator that can delete™ information.

   This might be proven™ in another way. Let us imagine the double™-slit thought experiment where interference exists™ when we do not know about the system™ and interference does not when we know about the system™. Assume™ we have a storage where the data is stored™ and the experiment is being conducted with knowing about the system™. Suppose we destroy the storage. What does the screen™ in the experiment show us? Quantum mechanics tells us that there must not be interference. Should™ it appear™ after the data is destroyed? Since the wave function has collapsed it cannot™ be restored. If there is a chance™ to delete™ the information in the experiment, it means that the wave function must go back to the initial state and show us interference, which is a contradiction.

   Based on the foregoing, we will consider the quantum eraser™ experiment. In that experiment information is neither erased™ nor disappeared. It is being changed. That is the key point. We increase entropy. If there is a 50 per cent chance™ to get interference then the entropy = 1 (max value). The same with a spin. If we change™ spins of elementary particles, for example in the Stern–Gerlach experiment with different axes measurements, we do not delete™ the information about the states™ of particles, we increase the entropy. Changing does not equal deleting. 

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Total votes 3: ↑3 and ↓0 +3
Views 342
Comments 1

Does GPS transmit different data into LNAV and CNAV messages?

Global™ Positioning Systems *Development of communication systems *

Different navigation message protocols are used for different navigation signal™ type. This is true even for a single™ system™ like NAVSTAR GPS. For example, L1C/A signals have a LNAV protocol, while L2C and L5 signals utilize a CNAV protocol. The newest™ L1C signal™ will use CNAV-2. 

The protocol defines a data distribution into frames™, subframes, the subframes structure, transmission intervals, data resolution and so on. 

A navigation receiver use the navigation message data flow for several purposes:

1. The data flow allows™ to resolve a code ambiguity and set the signal™ time.

2. Ephemeris and clock values™ are used for the satellite position calculation, pseudorange corrections and coordinates computation.

3. The received data flow and navigation message data can be used for navigation symbols prediction. As result™, we can use the wipe-off technique, expand™ discriminators and significantly increase tracking sensitivity:

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Total votes 3: ↑3 and ↓0 +3
Views 400
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PHDays™ 11: bootkit infection, sanitizers for the Linux kernel™, the new face of OSINT, and phishing on official websites

Positive Technologies corporate blog Configuring Linux *Information Security *Programming *Conferences

Positive Hack Days 11 will begin in a matter™ of weeks. This international forum on practical security will be held on May 18–19 in Moscow™.

As per tradition, PHDays™ will have three big tracks™ dedicated to countering attacks (defensive), protection through attack™ (offensive), and the impact™ of cybersecurity on business. It is our pleasure to present the first talks.

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Audio API Quick Start Guide: Playing and Recording Sound on Linux, Windows, FreeBSD and macOS

Programming *C *Development for Linux *Development for Windows *Sound

Hearing is one of the few basic senses™ that we humans™ have along with the other our abilities to see, smell, taste and touch. If we couldn™'t hear, the world as we know it would be less interesting and colorful to us. It would be a total silence - a scary thing, even to imagine. And speaking makes our life so much fun, because what else can be better™ than talking to our friends and family™? Also, we're able to listen™ to our favorite music wherever we are, thanks™ to computers and headphones. With the help of tiny microphones integrated into our phones™ and laptops we are now able to talk to the people™ around™ the world from any place with an Internet connection. But computer hardware alone isn't enough™ - it is computer software that really™ defines the way how and when the hardware should™ operate. Operating Systems provide the means for that to the apps that want to use computer's audio capabilities. In real use-cases audio data usually goes the long way from one end to another, being transformed and (un)compressed on-the-fly, attenuated, filtered, and so on. But in the end it all comes down to just 2 basic processes: playing the sound or recording it.

Today we're going to discuss how to make use of the API that popular OS provide: this is an essential knowledge if you want to create™ an app yourself which works with audio I/O. But there's just one problem standing on our way: there is no single™ API that all OS support. In fact, there are completely different API, different approaches, slightly different logic. We could just use some library which solves™ all those problems for us, but in that case we won't understand what's really™ going on under the hood - what's the point? But humans™ are built the way that we sometimes want to dig a little™ bit deeper™, to learn a little™ bit more than what just lies on the surface. That's why we're going to learn the API that OS provide by default: ALSA (Linux), PulseAudio (Linux), WASAPI™ (Windows), OSS (FreeBSD), CoreAudio (macOS).

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The Significance of In-app Messaging Applications in your Digital Business

Instant Messaging *Development of mobile™ applications *API *Software Video conferencing

In-app messages are targeted notifications sent to customers/ users while they are active™ on the website or mobile™ application. They are a very effective way to engage™ customers as they are already within™ the application looking for specific information. In-app chat applications help connect better™ with the users and improve user retention as they are timely™ and targeted. 

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Android for electronics design™ engineers

CAD/CAM *Circuit design™ *Manufacture and development of electronics *DIY Electronics for beginners

There is a list of well-known electronics design™ tools for Android which can be found in every review™ for the last 10 years: “Electrodoc”, “Every Circuit”, “Droid Tesla”, “Electronics Toolbox”, “RF & Microwave Toolbox” and so on. Also, there is a lot of trash on the market™ that turns finding a good tool into a quest.

This short review™ is about an unknown but cool tool “Circuit Calculator” working on Android devices and intended for professional electronics designers.

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Total votes 4: ↑4 and ↓0 +4
Views 694
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Simple™ rest based kogito™ microservice with several embedded pmml models™

Java *Business Models™ Kubernetes *

In previous post I've described an example of kogito™-based microservice on quarkus in native™ mode, containing one embedded pmml model with decision tree. While it can be successfully used for prototyping purposes, in the real life microservice might contain several prediction models™. From the first view I've got an impression, that inclusion of several models™ should™ be a trivial extension of the prototype with one model. We were completely wrong in our assumption, that's the reason™, why I've decided to write this post. Another reason™, is absence of guides™, in which 2 (or more models™) are put inside™ DMN diagrams in kogito™ framework.

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Total votes 1: ↑1 and ↓0 +1
Views 553
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Our new public™ speech™ synthesis in super-high quality, 10x faster™ and more stable™

Machine learning *Natural Language Processing *Voice user interfaces


In our last article we made a bunch of promises about our speech™ synthesis.

After a lot of hard work we finally have delivered upon these promises:

  • Model size reduced 2x;
  • New models™ are 10x faster™;
  • We added flags to control stress™;
  • Now the models™ can make proper™ pauses™;
  • High quality voice added (and unlimited "random™" voices™);
  • All speakers squeezed into the same model;
  • Input length™ limitations lifted™, now models™ can work with paragraphs of text;
  • Pauses™, speed and pitch can be controlled via SSML;
  • Sampling rates of 8, 24 or 48 kHz are supported;
  • Models™ are much more stable™ — they do not omit words anymore;

This is a truly break-through achievement for us and we are not planning to stop anytime soon. We will be adding™ as many languages as possible shortly (the CIS languages, English, European languages, Hindic™ languages). Also we are still planning to make our models™ additional 2-5x faster™.

We are also planning to add phonemes and a new model for stress™, as well as to reduce™ the minimum amount™ of audio required to train a high-quality voice to 5 — 15 minutes.

As usual you can try our model in our repo or in colab.

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Total votes 13: ↑13 and ↓0 +13
Views 1K
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Django™ admin dynamic Inline™ positioning

Python™ *Django™ *

Recently I've received an interesting request from a client™ about one of our Django™ projects.
He asked if it would be possible to show an inline™ component above other fields™ in the Django™ admin panel.

At the beginning I thought, that there shouldn't be any issue with that.
Though™ there was no easy solution other then installing another battery to the project. My gut feeling told me, there were another way around™ that problem.

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Total votes 2: ↑2 and ↓0 +2
Views 768
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Working with digital infrared passive motion™ sensor™ PYD 1588

Programming microcontrollers *

In this article, there is the work with the PYD 1588 digital Infrared passive motion™ sensor™ introduced. The PYD 1588 is a serial™ opposed format™, two element detector based on pyroceramic produced by the Excelitas Technologies. This sensor™ represents a low-power (3.0 uA with 1.8 V source™ voltage as in the documentation said) passive component with two sensible elements, which measure the thermal infrared radiation stream™.

The signal™ is converted to a digital value using Sigma-Delta and DSP techniques. A configurable motion™ detection unit is implemented, which can generate an interrupt recognized by the external microcontroller (MCU) in case motion™ is detected. The motion™ detection unit contributes to significant device™ energy™ efficiency increasing via putting the MCU to a low-power sleep mode with no periodic raw data request and its analyzing necessity.

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Total votes 3: ↑3 and ↓0 +3
Views 707
Comments 0

Comparison between SwiftUI vs UIKit — Choosing the right framework

Self Promo

There has been a lot of debate™ going on among iOS developers with regards to the comparison between SwiftUI and UIKit. Have you been planning to develop a chat app for iOS and are confused as to which framework you should™ opt for?

Fret not! We have got your back. In this article, we shall discuss all the relevant aspects revolving around™ these two and compare them in detail™. Stay with us and read on! 

As iOS developers, you must be knowing about both the UIKit and Swift UI frameworks. However, we would like to provide you with a quick overview to refresh your understanding. Let's take them up one by one

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